BARUKH (Heb. בָּרוּךְ), initial word of the berakhah pattern of prayer. Barukh is conventionally translated "blessed," but the etymology is disputed. The root (ברך) seems to have meant originally "bend (or fall) upon the knees (berekh = knee)" in prayerful obeisance (Ps. 95:6; Isa. 45:23). Cassuto maintains, however, that it meant originally "bestow a gift" (Gen. 24:1, 35; 33:11, et al.). Barukh is a homonym expressing a reciprocal relationship: man can address God as barukh by expressing feelings of thanksgiving, reverence, love, and praise, while he is barukh by God who bestows His material and spiritual gifts. The person upon whom the divine blessing rests is called berukh Adonai, "blessed of the Lord" (Gen. 24:31, 26:29). Barukh Adonai, in the sense of man blessing God, occurs 24 times in the Bible. The pattern barukh Attah Adonai ("blessed art Thou, Lord") occurs only twice in biblical literature (Ps. 119:12; I Chron. 29:10). This second person form attained currency no earlier than about the fourth century B.C.E. There is, however, no substantive difference between the second and third person forms. As applied to God "blessed" is identical with "praised" and the formula of blessing viz. benediction is, in fact, one of praise. The prototype of the classical berakhah is to be found in the biblical formula, barukh Adonai… asher… (e.g., Gen. 24:27; Ex. 18:10), in which he who has experienced the marvelous or miraculous expresses adoration and awe. This pattern persisted for centuries and was eventually adapted for liturgical use as the Jew's response to "the miracles of every day." But the insertion of the pronoun Attah ("Thou") was slow in gaining exclusive acceptance. Some of the variant forms of the berakhah persisted until the third century C.E. when the standard pattern was fully established (Ber. 40b). In third-century Babylonia, Rav and Samuel were still debating whether Attah was required in the formula (TJ, Ber. 9:1, 12d). Rav's pattern, barukh Attah Adonai, became the standard opening phrase; but the old biblical formula in which barukh (Attah) Adonai was followed by the characteristic phrase, asher ("who," i.e., "performed some beneficent act") remained in use. This juxtaposition of direct address to God and a sequel in the third person created a syntactical paradox which has exercised commentators and theologians down to the present. Many commentators explain the juxtaposition of second and third person homiletically as indicating both God's nearness and transcendence. The second person address is referred to in traditional sources as nigleh ("revealed") and the third person as nistar ("hidden"). -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Blank, in: HUCA, 32 (1961), 87–90; Bamberger, in: Judaism, 5 (1956), 167–8; M. Kadushin, The Rabbinic Mind (19652), 266–70 (theological aspect); J. Heinemann, Ha-Tefillah bi-Tekufat ha-Tanna'im re-ha-Amora'im (19662), 29–77 (textual criticism). (Herman Kieval)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Barukh — One would normally expected this surname to be German, but of Hebrew origins. If so it is derived from the pre history given name Baruch or the Yidish Borekh , both of whom have the same translation of blessed or fortunate . There are many… …   Surnames reference

  • BARUKH SHE-AMAR — (Heb. בָּרוּךְ שֶׁאָמַר; Blessed be He who spoke ), benediction opening the section of Shaḥarit called passages of song, i.e., the morning psalms (Pesukei de Zimra or Zemirot). In the Ashkenazi rite the benediction is placed at the beginning of… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • BARUKH SHE-PETARANI — (Heb. בָּרוּךְ שֶׁפְּטָרַנִי; Blessed be He who has relieved me, i.e., from the responsibility for my son s conduct), benediction pronounced by the father at his son s bar mitzvah (see: Isserles, to Sh. Ar., OH 225:1; Maim. Yad, Teshuvah, 6:1).… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • BARUKH SHEM KEVOD MALKHUTO LE-OLAM VA-ED — (Heb. בָּרוּךְ שֵׁם כְּבוֹד מַלְכוּתוֹ לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד; Blessed be His name, whose glorious kingdom is forever and ever (Singer, Prayer, and Union Prayer Book) or Blessed be His glorious kingdom for ever and ever (Rabbinical Assembly Prayerbook),… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Kfar Barukh — Infobox Kibbutz kibbutz name = Kfar Barukh foundation = 1926 founded by = New immigrants region = council = Jezreel Valley industry = affiliation = Moshavim Movement website = Kfar Barukh ( he. כפר ברוך, lit. Baruch Village ) is a moshav in… …   Wikipedia

  • Ma'ayan Barukh — Infobox Kibbutz kibbutz name = Ma ayan Barukh foundation = 11 March 1947 founded by = region = Finger of the Galilee council = Upper Galilee industry = affiliation = Kibbutz Movement website = Ma ayan Barukh ( he. מעיין ברוך, lit. Baruch Spring ) …   Wikipedia

  • DAGON (Fishko), BARUKH — (Asher David; c. 1885–1957), Hebrew short story writer. He adopted the pseudonym of Barukh while active in the Russian underground. Dagon, who was born in the province of Pinsk, went to Warsaw at the end   of the 19th century. He worked as a… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • KEFAR BARUKH — (Heb. כְּפַר כָּרוּךְ), moshav near the Kishon reservoir of the National Water Carrier in the Jezreel Valley, Israel, affiliated to Tenu at ha Moshavim. It was founded in 1926 by settlers from Kurdistan, Iraq, Romania, Poland, Germany, and also… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • MA'YAN BARUKH — (Heb. מַעְיַן בָּרוּךְ), kibbutz on the Israel Lebanese border near the Tannur waterfall, affiliated with Iḥud ha Kevuẓot ve ha Kibbutzim. It was founded in 1947 by South African and Rhodesian World War II veterans, joined by Israel born youth… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • BEN-YEHUDAH, BARUKH — (1894–1990), Israeli educator. Ben Yehudah, who was born in Marijampole, Lithuania, settled in Ereẓ Israel in 1911. During World War I he joined kevuẓat Deganyah, teaching there and at Rosh Pinnah. He then studied at the University of Brussels… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.